SilverWillow Energy
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Glossary

bbl means barrels, which are equal to 0.15899 cubic metres.

bbls/d means barrels per day.

bitumen means a heavy viscous crude oil.

coke means the solid black hydrocarbon left as a residual after the volatile hydrocarbons have been removed from bitumen by distillation.

coker means the vessel in which bitumen is cracked into its fractions.

cracking means the process of breaking down the large, heavier and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler, lighter molecules.

ERCB  means the Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board, formerly known as Alberta Energy and Utility Board.

extraction means the process by which the bitumen is separated from the sand, water and other impurities.

hydrocracking or hydrotreating means the refining process for reducing heavy hydrocarbons into lighter fractions using hydrogen and a catalyst.

in situ means in its original position or place. Specifically related to the oil sands, in situ refers to recovery techniques which apply heat or solvents to bitumen reservoirs within the earth’s crust. There are several varieties of in situ techniques, but the most common in the oil sands are the application of heat in the form of steam. Currently, the most efficient type of in situ bitumen production is referred to as steam assisted gravity drainage, a production technique which is becoming more prevalent in the Alberta oil sands.

mineable oil sand means oil sand that can be recovered by mining.

oil sands means sand, clay and rock material that contains bitumen.

ore grade measured in weight percent bitumen, is a measure of the richness of the ore. In most cases, the ore grade is based on the ore quality that is fed to the extraction process.

overburden means the layer of sand, gravel and shale that overlies the oil sands.

SCO or synthetic crude oil means crude oil produced by upgrading bitumen to a mixture of hydrocarbons similar to light crude oil produced either by the removal of carbon (coking) or the addition of hydrogen through hydrotreating. Considered synthetic because its original hydrocarbon composition has been altered in the upgrading process.

strip ratio means a measure of how much waste material has to be mined for every volume of mined ore. This is expressed as cubic metres of waste per cubic metre of ore.

TV:BIP means a measure of the total volume mined relative to the bitumen in-place and expressed as cubic metres of material mined per cubic metre of bitumen.

upgrading means the process of converting heavy oil or bitumen in synthetic crude oil.

WTI means West Texas Intermediate grade crude oil at a reference sales point in Cushing, Oklahoma, a common benchmark for crude oils.